Germany[ edit ] The biofuel company Butalco has recently signed a research and development contract with Hohenheim University. The Institute of Fermentation Technology within the Department of Food Science and Biotechnology at Hohenheim University has been concerned with questions on the production of bioethanol for almost 30 years.
Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University In this experiment, cellulosic material such as corn stalks, leaves, grasses, etc.
The cellulosic material is first pretreated ground and heateddigested with enzymes, and then fermented with yeast. Ethanol production is monitored using an ethanol probe. The experiment can be extended to optimize ethanol production by varying the feedstock used, pretreatment conditions, enzyme variation, yeast variation, etc.
An alternative method of monitoring the reaction is to measure the carbon dioxide produced using a gas sensor instead of the ethanol. As a low-tech alternative, glucose meters found in any drug store can be used to monitor the glucose during the process, if an ethanol probe or carbon dioxide gas sensor is not available.
Another advantage is that these are small and lightweight and can be taken into the field for measurements.
Producing Ethanol from Cellulosic Material. Principles The United States is looking to wean itself off of fossil fuels, especially petroleum used in gasoline.
Global climate change, dependence on foreign countries, and increased political instability around the world are only a few reasons why. One possible way to decrease dependence on petroleum as a transportation fuel is by using more ethanol. The main product of sugarcane is sucrose, which is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose.
Most species of yeast have the enzyme sucrase and are able to cleave the glucose — fructose bond. The sucrose C12H22O11 is fermented by yeast to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide. The overall chemical reaction is shown in Equation 1.
Corn stores carbohydrates as a polysaccharide called starch. This requires more effort than making ethanol from sugarcane because yeast cannot cleave the bonds in starch.
To make ethanol from corn, first corn kernels need to be ground up, then the ground corn treated with enzymes to convert the starch in the corn to glucose. After this step, the process continues as in the sugarcane method above by using yeast to ferment the glucose into ethanol and carbon dioxide. The chemical reaction is shown in Equation 2.
For one thing, it takes some corn out of the food supply, especially feed for livestock, thus driving up prices. It is also energy and fertilizer intensive to produce corn, decreasing its desirability as a transportation fuel alternative to petroleum. Therefore, scientists are increasingly turning to cellulosic material to make ethanol.
These materials include wood, grasses, and non-edible parts of plants. These are more desirable as they do not impact food supply. However, in order to release the glucose from the cellulosic material, much more effort is needed, as the glucose from cellulosic material is bound up in cellulose, which is then wrapped with hemicelluloses and lignin.
First the cellulose needs to be extracted from the hemicelluloses and lignin bindings. This is done through a pretreatment of grinding and acid hydrolysis. Then, the cellulose is treated with enzymes to break it up into its component glucose. Finally, the glucose can be fermented with yeast to produce ethanol and water.New Zealand.
Ethanol. Gasification. Steel waste gas (CO) Mixed cellulose. Cellulosic biofuel. In New Jersey, Trenton Fuel Works announced details of its proposed Mgy biomass-to-fuel pilot project in Trenton, converting food, paper and yard waste Trenton Fuel Works at a facility that will cost $2 million to acquire and $65 million to.
Unfortunately, based on the volume of cellulosic ethanol that is feasible to be produced currently, this number has had to be reduced to 17 million gallons according to a recent EPA proposal.
1 Improving the process of creating ethanol from cellulosic material is currently a very hot area of research. In this experiment, students will be emulating the scientific practices that scientists in the top research labs .
derived ethanol problems and strategies for the bioethanol industry to become more economically feasible and therefore commercially viable. Future prospects for the systematic optimi-zation of lignocellulosic bioconversion are also addressed.
2. Historical and current trends of biofuel in the U.S. Cellulosic ethanol commercialization is the process of building an industry out of methods of turning cellulose-containing organic matter into cellulosic ethanol for use as a biofuel.
Companies, such as Iogen, POET, DuPont, and Abengoa, are building refineries that can process biomass and turn it into bioethanol. Ethanol From Cellulose: A General Review.
the Brazilian government established programs supportive of the industry with the result that Brazil has been able to successfully produce and use sugarcane for fuel ethanol production.
it is only recently that cost-effective technologies for producing ethanol-from-cellulose (EFC) in the US have. There are various social, economic, environmental and technical issues with biofuel production and use, which have been discussed in the popular media and scientific journals.