Understanding Capitalism Part V: Evolution of the American Economy By - March 15, When the United States of America was founded in it was the most egalitarian Western nation in the world for citizens of European descent, indeed one of the most egalitarian major societies in all of human history. It was the relative equality of white American society that made America such an attractive place for European immigrants and a "land of opportunity".
Decade of development In Januarythe United Nations resolved that the decade of the s would be the Decade of Development.
Earlier, in his inaugural address as President, he had signalled a new sense of purpose in international affairs. In this view, to have one part of humanity live well while the other lived in penury was morally unacceptable. But there were also strategic considerations. In the ideological confrontation between East and West, the promise of poverty alleviation was a weapon to be deployed in the building of alliances.
Training a country's traditional birth attendants in pre- and postnatal care and safe delivery techniques was a strategy to reduce maternal mortality rates and protect newborns. The new links being forged within the community of nations seemed to open up a new era of international peace and prosperity.
The countries of the 'third world', having cast off their colonial status, now also needed to cast off their poverty. But for this they needed aid in the form of funds and know-how from their richer neighbours.
Thus was born the push for development, a concept which along with more conventional notions of economic investment also embraced a degree of moral and humanitarian fervour. During the late s, the United Nations had begun to adapt its institutions to take on the development challenge.
It already had technical expertise within its specialized agencies but it also needed a mechanism to channel financial resources. Intherefore, it established a Special Fund to support the growth of infrastructure and industrialization.
But no organization in the UN community could remain immune to the new currents of thinking. The turning-point was a special survey into the needs of children. This survey, initiated by UNICEF intook a year to complete, and was accompanied by 'state of the art' reports from the specialized agencies.
The final report, Children of the Developing Countries, represented a watershed in nations' outlook on how to help their most vulnerable citizens. The report interwove social and economic strands concerning children's well-being in a fresh and innovative way and presented a theory of development that underlined the importance of satisfying human needs during various phases of childhood and pre-adulthood.
In particular, it argued that children's needs should be built into national development plans. Children should not be treated as if they were the orphans of the development process or merely its accidental baggage; they should be a focus of all policies directed at building up a country's 'human capital'.
Just as over the course of the 20th century, the motto 'children first' had gained currency during times of war and sudden catastrophe, so a new version of the same motto had been articulated in the context of development.
They could no longer be confined to those run by sub-departments of Ministries of Health and Social Welfare.
If children were a country's most precious resource, then their interests were not merely something to be addressed at times of distress. Rather, their well-being should be a specific target of investment and indeed of the whole development effort.
The situation of children would have to be discussed within Ministries of National Planning, no less. And because children's concerns would have to be contemplated by research institutes and within national surveying and planning exercises, these were all activities that UNICEF would henceforth be willing to support.
The other major change was to abandon the compartmentalization of children's needs.
In the future, UNICEF would consider the needs of children along with those of their parents and nurturers, and would take into account the 'whole' child.
Instead of treating the child as a set of parts of which the only ones of concern were those related to physical well-being, UNICEF should be willing to address the child's broader intellectual and psychosocial needs.
The immediate outcome was a change of policy whereby UNICEF for the first time -- and to the satisfaction of the countries of the developing world -- was willing to provide funds for formal and non-formal education.
Like many other members of the international humanitarian community, UNICEF set out over the next few years to show that the fields in which it was engaged lay at the heart of development. These were traditional arenas such as food and nutrition, and maternal and child health care.
But they also included new ones such as education, women's issues, water supplies and sanitation. In these areas, UNICEF could provide material assistance in the form of equipment, drugs, vehicles and training stipends.
In very poor environments, technical advice was futile without the wherewithal to put it into effect Panel 8. Because the humanitarian organizations were essentially field oriented, they learned this lesson faster than most.Democrat Bill Clinton is elected as the United States President.
The Mall of America opens in Minnesota. The biggest assistance for many of the technological advances in the 90's was the improvements in communication including Internet access, Television Trends of the s The s was an important decade in the history of television.
Many of the most popular consumer products still around today were invented in the s and '80s such as cell phones and home computers. Like cars in the early part of the century, these inventions have changed the world in a multitude of ways.
This page contains the scientific and technological developments of the s. Science and technology articles by decades and years: the first genetically modified food sold in the United States is introduced. The Oriental Pearl Tower is completed in Shanghai, and in North America in September Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) Bill Cosby as a physician and head of the family, it is regarded [by whom?] as one of the defining television shows of the decade.
Beloved by Toni Morrison was published in Obama was elected 44th President of the United States of America on. The s: Decade of development.
In January , the United Nations resolved that the decade of the s would be the Decade of Development. President Kennedy launched the Decade at . The first decade of the 21st Century brought a number of discoveries, mistakes, and medical advances that have influenced medicine from the patient's bedside to the medicine cabinet.