There has emerged as many definitions of African nationalism as there are scholars who have tried to define the word.
In the decades that followed independence, they worked to shape the cultural, political, and economic character of the postcolonial state. Some worked against the challenges of continued European cultural and political hegemony, while others worked with European powers in Independance stugles of kenya and south to protect their interests and maintain control over economic and political resources.
Decolonization, then, was a process as well as a historical period.
Yet the nations and regions of Africa experienced it with varying degrees of success. Byformal European political control had given way to African self-rule—except in South Africa. Culturally and politically, however, the legacy of European dominance remained evident in the national borders, political infrastructures, education systems, national languages, economies, and trade networks of each nation.
Ultimately, decolonization produced moments of inspiration and promise, yet failed to transform African economies and political structures to bring about true autonomy and development. The Year of Africa "Most of our weaknesses," declared Kenneth Kaunda, first president of Zambia, in a March speech, "derive from lack of finance, trained personnel, etc.
We are left with no choice but to fall on either the east or west, or indeed, on both of them. When decolonization began, there were reasons for optimism. The year was heralded throughout Africa and the West as "the Year of Africa" for the inspiring change that swept the continent.
During that year, the Sharpeville massacre in South Africa shook the world to awaken to the horrors of white minority rule as South African police fired into a crowd of peaceful black protesters, killing sixty-nine in full view of photographers and reporters.
Also inseventeen African territories gained independence from the strong arm of European colonial rule. Fully recognizing the potential for the remarkable change that African independence could bring to global politics, on February 3,Harold Macmillan, prime minister of Great Britain from todelivered his famous speech, "Wind of Change," to the South African parliament.
The Cold War It was this fear of Soviet influence in Africa, particularly on the part of the United States, that created such a major problem for African nations.
Western powers viewed African independence through the lens of the Cold War, which rendered African leaders as either pro-West or pro-East; there was little acceptable middle ground. The aim of my government which starts today is not to be pro-left or pro-right.
We shall pursue the task of national building in friendship with the rest of the world. Nobody will ever be allowed to tell us, to tell me: We shall remain free and whoever wants friendship with us must be a real friend.
Nonetheless, as Africans declared themselves nonaligned, pro-West, or Marxist sympathizers, Cold War politics deprived them of the freedom to truly shape their political paths. Although Western European powers granted aid to African nations, they also coerced governments to support their agendas and instigated and aided coups against democratically elected governments.
They also fomented civil unrest to ensure that governments friendly to their Cold War agenda remained in power and those that were not were removed by political machinations or assassination. In the Congo, for example, Joseph Mobutu took a strong anti-communist position and was subsequently rewarded by Western powers.
Neo Colonialism In the s, Frantz Fanon, the anti-colonial intellectual and psychoanalyst, among others, described neo-colonialism as the continued exploitation of the continent from outside and within, together with European political intervention during the post-independence years.
One of the many questions that African leaders faced was whether continued economic and political interaction with former colonial powers threatened their autonomy and political viability.
The ex- colonizers wanted to retain their former colonial territories within their sphere of influence. This continued relationship, Fanon argued, benefited African politicians and the small middle class but did not benefit the national majorities.
The result was tension between the ruling classes and the majority population. In he wrote in Toward the African Revolution: Every new sovereign state finds itself practically under the obligation of maintaining definite and deferential relations with the former oppressor.
This competitive strategy of Western nations, moreover, enters into the vaster framework of the policy of the two blocs, which for ten years has held a definite menace of atomic disintegration suspended over the world. And it is surely not purely by chance that the hand or the eye of Moscow is discovered, in an almost stereotypical way, behind each demand for national independence, put forth by a colonial people.
Foremost among these initiatives was the Bandung Conference, held in Bandung, Indonesia, from April 18 to 24, Representatives from twenty-nine Asian and African countries gathered to chart a course for neutrality in the Cold War conflict.
The attendees agreed that to avoid being trapped within a Western or Soviet political orbit, developing nations must not rely on the industrialized powers for economic and political aid. Therefore, they vowed to work together by pooling their developmental and technological resources to establish an economic and political sphere, a third way, to counterbalance the West and the Soviet Union.
However, it was a challenge for African nations to forge international links beyond words on paper: In addition, the senior administrators who ran the colonies were removed with European rule, to be replaced by Africans with far less experience.Kenya: Colonization and Struggle for Independence The country we know as Kenya has been around for a while.
Whether it was known as Kenya a long time ago or not, it has survived through all these years. african nationalism and struggle for independence Nationalism literally refers to the desire, love, or sprit for ones nation. In Africa the term nationalism has been used to signify the struggle of independence or self determination against foreign domination, in case of Europe the term nationalism has been used to signify Struggle for national.
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|He also added that Kenya really needed assistance of the Indians in the fight against colonialism.|
12, | Kenya Gains Independence. By The Learning Network December 12, am December 12, am.
Ludwig Wegmann/German Federal Archive Jomo Kenyatta, the first prime minister and the first president of Kenya, pictured in , three years after Kenya’s independence. South Africa Alicia Hudson SOC Professor Norsworthy May 6, South Africa South Africa, a country on the southern tip of Africa, has an area of ,sq mi and a population of 44,, It is predominately a black ethnicity with 76% of the population.
An atlas of Southern African colonization and independence during the decolonization era, explained by country. A Chronology of Southern African Independence.
Search the site GO. History & Culture. African History Key Events Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Republic of Mozambique. After speeches by all invited indian leaders it was Mzee’s turn to deliver his speech in his speech he praised indians for what they had achieved and stated he would ensure Kenyans follow the same example to achieve independence.
He also added that Kenya really needed assistance of the Indians in the fight against colonialism.