How does interactions between biological systems

Honors Honors Program in the School of Biological Sciences The Honors Program in the School of Biological Sciences provides an opportunity for outstanding majors in the School to pursue advanced work in independent research via participation in the Excellence in Biological Sciences Research Program and earn Honors in Biological Sciences upon graduation.

How does interactions between biological systems

Discuss the use of brain imaging technologies in investigating the relationships between biological factors and behaviour.

Introduction State what you are doing in the essay This essay will attempt to offer a balanced review of the use of brain imaging technologies in investigating the relationships between biological factors and behaviour State the different types of brain imaging technologies used at the BLA PET: Electroencephalogram Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages and are appropriate in varying situations Explain why Brain imaging technologies are used at the BLA Brain imaging technologies are methods used in psychology to examine the human brain.

They are particularly useful in neuropsychology As it provides an opportunity to study the active brain Allows researchers to see where specific brain processes take place Enables researchers to study localisation of function specific areas of the brain are responsible for different functions in a living human brain It also provides correlations between brain activity and behaviour — though it does not necessarily detail a cause-effect relationship.

Body Biological Factor 1: MRI Scans Introduce the physiological process of neuroplasticity The first brain imaging technology, MRI scans, will be firstly investigated in its relation to the biological process of neuroplasticity.

Describe the MRI brain imaging technology This technique uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce 3D computer-generated images. MRI scans involve people to remove all metal objects and clothing where they lie within an MRI machine. It can distinguish among different types How does interactions between biological systems soft tissue and allows researchers to see structures within the brain.

An example of a study which utilizes MRI scans to investigate the relationships between biological factors and behaviour is a study conducted by Maguire et al.

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This was based on the knowledge that London taxi drivers must do a two-year training course where they end up being able to find their way around the city without a map.

MRI scans were used to scan the structure of their hippocampi, which were compared to already existing MRI scans of healthy males who did not drive taxis. Some parts of the hippocampi were smaller in the taxi drivers. Maguire concluded that there was probably a redistribution of grey matter in the hippocampi of taxi drivers due to the regular use of the spatial memory skills required to remember roads; the neurons are stronger in areas of the brain which are used most.

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Brains areas, hippocampi Behaviour: Remembering, Memory Supporting Study 2: HM suffered epileptic seizures after a head injury at age 9 Doctors performed surgery to stop seizures Tissue from temporal lobe, and hippocampus was removed HM suffered anterograde amnesia He could recall information from early life but could not form new memories HM was studied using an MRI in Findings: The brain scan showed that there was damage to the hippocampus, amygdala, and areas close to the hippocampus Connection of study to question By using MRI scanning technology, researchers were able to investigate the effects of biological factors on behaviour and make a correlation between certain brain areas and memory and other behaviour.

MRI scans were used to see the structures of the brain to determine the extent of brain damage The structures would not be able to be clearly seen using other technologies such as EEGs or CTs.

How does interactions between biological systems

PET Scans Introduce the cognitive process of language The next biological factor which will be discussed with the brain imaging technology of PET Scans are brain interactions and functions. Describe PET brain imaging technology PET scans require patients to be injected with a radioactive glucose tracer which shows the areas where glucose is absorbed in the active brain.

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More glucose metabolism means more brain activity. PET scans show a coloured visual display of brain activity; where radioactive tracer is absorbed Red indicates areas with the most activity Blue indicates areas with the least activity Supporting Study 3: An example of a study which utilizes PET scans to investigate the result of brain damage is a study conducted by Tierney et al.

To evaluate, using PET scans, the bilingual language compensation following early childhood brain damage Background: Researchers were curious to know if this might have had something to do with his ability to speak despite the brain damage that should have prevented him from doing so.

How does interactions between biological systems

Researchers compared MA to 12 control participants, who were fluent in sign language PET scanning technologies were used while the participants produced narrative speech or signs Results: MA's right hemisphere was more active than the controls' during the production of both speech and sign language Conclusion: Language function seems to have developed in the right hemisphere instead of the left hemisphere as an adaptation following his early brain damage Connection of study to outcome Tierney utilised PET scans to investigate the biological factors in MA and observe the areas of the brain LOF linked to language and language acquisition.

Damage to brain, specific areas Behaviour: Language, language acquisition Supporting Study 4: The aim of the experiment was to discover using PET scans if murderers who pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity NGRI show evidence of brain abnormalities.

They had to perform tasks requiring them to detect target signals for 32 minutes Results: Answer the question In conclusion, brain imaging technologies are very useful in determining the relationship between biological factors and behaviour Useful in different situations.In this review, we focused on the current knowledge of the role proteins play in interactions between biomaterials used in biomedical applications and biological systems.

The aim was to understand how this knowledge can be used for developing new biomaterials with improved performance and for a faster and more efficient translation of the. science investigates cause-and-effect relationships by seeking the mechanisms that underlie them.

The ensuing atomistic view shall be presented and discussed within the context of molecular interactions in biological systems. While DNA is the storage of hereditary information, proteins and RNA are its agents, accessing . Biological systems have unique abilities to link complex molecular interactions to catalytic functions. Sophisticated non-covalent interactions control formation of covalent bonds. Some of the most advanced forms of these phenomena are observed in DNA and RNA polymerases, and in the ribosome. Theme 4: Interactions between Biological Systems. STUDY. PLAY. 1. Can you distinguish between the term monomer and polymer? The matrix contains enzymes that are responsible for the Citric Acid Cycle, dissolved oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, and the recyclable intermediates that serve as shuttles.

The next concept—scale, proportion, and quantity—concerns the sizes of things and the mathematical relationships among disparate elements.

Boron is an essential element for plants and probably essential for human and animal health. Boron has a broad range of physiological effects on biological systems at low concentrations, whereas it is toxic to at high concentrations.

Jan 19,  · Research on the interactions between human behaviour and ecological systems tends to focus on the direct effects of human .

EPA develops models of complex biological systems to study the impact of chemicals on human development. These experimental and computational models are used to help predict what chemical-biological interactions have the potential to lead to developmental toxicity or birth defects.

4A: Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties. 4B: Competition and cooperation are important aspects of biological systems. 4C: Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within biological systems affects interactions with the environment.

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