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By saying this Watson meant that Freud and other Psychoanalysts could not prove their theories and therefore were not scientific. Also they studied abnormal patients mental patients so therefore they could not have a true picture. The essential theories, which stand Watson out from the rest, are that he believed psychologists should look to the relationship between the environment and the behaviour, rather than the presumed contents of the consciousness.
He was able to provide evidence to his theories unlike other unreliable and unverifiable conscious experience studies.
There are three main areas of study Classical conditioning PavlovOperant conditioning Skinner and Observational learning Bandura. Classical conditioning uses a stimulus response, Pavlov when experimenting with the dog and Compare and contrast two approaches, conditioned the dog to know when a treat was inevitable by using a bell as the stimulus.
He proved that the dog would salivate at the mere thought of food and therefore his learning was by association.
In the Skinner experiment he used positive and negative reinforcement as forms of rewards or punishments, this was called Operant conditioning. Finally when using Observational learning Bandura its proven to be far more scientific using laboratory for studies and experiments.
This seems to be a far more objective approach. The behaviourist approach has a more scientific and objective view and provides a counter argument to the nature theory. By using a few basic principles, behaviourism can explain many characteristics in both human and animal behaviours and has many practical applications.
However, on a more negative note it can be said that behaviourism rejects the conscious mental experiences and assumes that individuals are not responsible for their own actions.
In addition it over simplifies the explanations for behaviour and experiences. The psychoanalytic approach was started and mainly developed by Sigmund Freud. Whilst talking to Charcot, Freud realized how talking about traumatic experiences relieved the symptoms of hysteria. He also made a connection between the role of sex and hysterical behaviour.
Freud saw sex as a potential cause of emotional stress. Another great influence was Breuer who pioneered cathartic therapy. His approach had a huge impact on psychology and psychiatry. They also believed in Psychic determinism, which dictates whatever we say or do has a cause.
Hydraulic drives were believed to create psychic energy which if not released would create tension and anxiety. The two basic drives, which this refers to, are the Sex drive and the aggressive drive.
Apparently according to Freud, different parts of the unconscious mind were in constant struggle with each other called the Psychodynamic conflict. He along with others believed that the personality was shaped as we entered different stages of development.
It has become apparent that the only similarity between these two approaches is that both Watson and Freud believed their theory could explain all concepts of human behaviour. They allowed no room for any other explanation.
This in its self has causes doubt for both sides of the argument. It is obvious to the reader that there a very few similarities between these approaches, however it seems that both the pioneers solely thought their way was the only way. Both these men used their own theories to explain the same topics, such as: There are strengths and weakness to all arguments and this one is no exception.
The psychoanalytic approach has huge explanatory of power on a variety of subjects. Many experiments carried out using this theory have failed to support Freud. Psychoanalyst therapy has been widely criticised. Behaviourism was scientific and experimental and left a lasting effect on its subjects.
It also provides a strong counter argument on the nature rather than nurture argument. Using simple principles, behaviourism can explain a great variety of phenomena and has many practical implications.
So what, if any gain has been made by society by these theories? Far more has been gained from the Behaviour theories than that of the psychoanalyst.
The behaviourist approach has produced many practical implications such as education programmed learning also the treatment of those with behavioural disturbances such as phobias and behaviour shaping in autism. The Operant conditioning principles are used to train animals to do tasks.
This approach has also been used in advertising and in child rearing.In a comparison/contrast essay, a writer must do the following: 1) Identify and explain three or more key points that two or more subjects have in common.
2) Show the similarities and differences between these points. 3) Develop a thesis, indicating his or her position regarding the two subjects. Compare the benefits of eating fast food to. Free Essay: “Compare and Contrast two criminological approaches to understanding the commission of crime.” Criminologists seek to understand the commission.
Comprehension is the understanding and interpretation of what is read. To be able to accurately understand written material, children need to be able to (1) decode what they read; (2) make connections between what they read and what they already know; and (3) think deeply about what they have read.
The accelerated online RN to BSN program at Franklin will make you more marketable. Thanks to the industry’s need for quality nurses to replace an aging workforce combined with organizations seeking Magnet Recognition, employers are becoming more selective about their hires.
In my last blog post, I discussed minimally invasive surgery with regard to hip replacement. While new techniques, instruments and prostheses have been developed specifically for minimally invasive surgeries, there are many well-established approaches to hip replacement.
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