The Fine-Tuning Argument, Generalized by Luke Muehlhauser on September 30, in Design Argument Religious believers often claim that the universe is fine-tuned for life, and that this is evidence of God. As such, it invites a careful examination. This argument takes many forms, but we might generalize it like this:
The German philosopher Christian von Wolff coined the term in the Latin form "teleologia" in in his work Philosophia rationalis, sive logica. Platonic[ edit ] In the PhaedoPlato through Socrates argues that true explanations for any given physical phenomenon must be teleological. Imagine not being able to distinguish the real cause, from that without which the cause would not be able to act, as a cause.
It is what the majority appear to do, like people groping in the dark; they call it a cause, thus giving it a name that does not belong to it. That is why one man surrounds the earth with a vortex to make the heavens keep it in place, another makes the air support it like a wide lid.
For example given in Phaedo 98if Socrates is sitting in an Athenian prison, the elasticity of his tendons is what allows him to be sitting, and so a physical description of his tendons can be listed as necessary conditions or auxiliary causes of his act of sitting Phaedo 99b; Timaeus 46c9—d4, 69e6.
To say why he was sitting and not not sitting, we have to explain what it is about his sitting that is good, for all things brought about i. Thus, to give an explanation of something is to determine what about it is good. Its goodness is its actual cause—its purpose, telos or "reason for which" Timaeus 27d8—29a.
Aristotelian[ edit ] Aristotle argued that Democritus was wrong to attempt to reduce all things to mere necessity, because doing so neglects the aim, order, and "final cause", which brings about these necessary conditions: Democritushowever, neglecting the final cause, reduces to necessity all the operations of nature.
Now, they are necessary, it is true, but yet they are for a final cause and for the sake of what is best in each case.
Thus nothing prevents the teeth from being formed and being shed in this way; but it is not on account of these causes but on account of the end For Aristotle, natural ends are produced by "natures" principles of change internal to living thingsand natures, Aristotle argued, do not deliberate: Nothing in the body is made in order that we may use it.
What happens to exist is the cause of its use. Final and formal causation came to be viewed as false or too subjective. More specifically he believed that human action, i. Or in other words an individual selects what they believe to be the most appropriate means to achieve a sought after goal or end.
Mises however also stressed that teleology with respect to human action was by no means independent of causality as he states "no action can be devised and ventured upon without definite ideas about the relation of cause and effect, teleology presupposes causality"  Modern and postmodern philosophy[ edit ] Historically, teleology may be identified with the philosophical tradition of Aristotelianism.
Individual human consciousnessin the process of reaching for autonomy and freedom, has no choice but to deal with an obvious reality: In contrast, teleological based " grand narratives " are eschewed by the postmodern attitude  and teleology may be viewed as reductive, exclusionary and harmful to those whose stories are diminished or overlooked.
Social practices may themselves be understood as teleologically oriented to internal goods, for example practices of philosophical and scientific inquiry are teleologically ordered to the elaboration of a true understanding of their objects.This page contains the Argument topics for the Analytical Writing section of the GRE® General timberdesignmag.com you take the test, you will be presented with one Argument topic from this pool.
In this segment, I want to go on to an argument in favor of classical theism. It begins with the premise that god is the first being, in the sense that all other things depend on .
May 20, · The Classical Music Guide Forums. Welcome to the new Classical Music Guide Online Forums! Skip to content. Many consider the argument for God from contingency to be one of the strongest.
The basic form is simple: If something exists, there must exist what it takes for that thing to exist.
The universe—the collection of beings in space and time—exists. Therefore, there must exist what it takes for th. Mar 16, · The argument is that it was "Für Therese"—and somewhere over the years, the name was mistranslated. Another fact working in Malfatti’s favor: .
So I am aware both that one can love music on a pretty deep level without having had formal lessons, and that very few of my peers, schooled or not, love this stuff as much as they might.